Running - Long-distance

Running - Long-distance Fitness Training

Running - Long-distance Description

Running can be an excellent method of increasing aerobic/cardiorespiratory fitness as well as muscular endurance. Running is very convenient, as it can be done virtually anywhere. It can also be adapted to provide either aerobic or interval exercise. Always warm-up and stretch before running to improve performance and prevent injuries.

Running - Long-distance Warnings

  • Those with chronic knee, lower back, hip/pelvis, ankle or leg problems should seek medical clearance before distance running.
  • Asthmatics and other bronchial or pulmonary disorder sufferers should seek medical advice before starting this activity.

Running - Long-distance Risks

  • Ankle or toe sprains
  • Knee injury such as chondromalacia, tendinitis, swelling (synovitis), iliotibial band injury
  • Shin splints
  • Stress fractures of pelvic and hip bones, tibial bones (leg) or toes
  • Muscle strains of calves, hamstrings, quadriceps or lower back
  • Amenorrhea for female long-distance runners (seek medical advice if menstrual irregularity develops)
  • Environmental hazards: extreme cold and heat are dangerous; rain and snow can cause slippery or uneven road/track conditions

Running - Long-distance Sport-specific applications

  • Marathon
  • Triathlon/duathlon
  • Decathlon
  • Modern pentathlon

Running - Long-distance Equipment required

  • Footwear (see equipment section)
  • Clothing: should be light-weight; dress accordingly for weather

Running - Long-distance Applicable substitutions

  • Long-distance treadmill work
  • Jogging
  • Cycling
  • Long-distance racewalking

Running - Long-distance Reference sources, organizations and publications

  • American Running and Fitness Association (AR&FA): (301) 897-0197
  • The Athletics Congress (TAC): PO Box 120, Indianapolis, IN 46206, (317) 261­0500
  • U.S. Olympic Committee: 1750 East Boulder St., Colorado Springs, CO 80909­5760, (719) 632­5551
  • NCAA: 6201 College Blvd., Overland Park, KS 66211­2422, (913) 339­1906
  • Road Runners Club of America (RRCA): (703)-836-0558
  • Galloway's Book on Running, Jeff Galloway, Shelter Publications
  • The Marathon Footrace, David Martin & Roger Gynn, C.C. Thomas Publishers
  • Ultramarathoning, Tom Osler and Ed Todd, World Publications, Inc.
  • Improving Your Running, Bill Squires, The Stephen Greene Press
  • Running Times Magazine: (703) 491­2044, Subscribe: (800) 872­5402


Cardiorespiratory: Aerobic/Interval

Fitness Benefits

  • Cardiorespiratory 5
  • Flexibility 1
  • Muscular Strength 1
  • Muscular Endurance 5
  • Body Fat Recution 5

Fitness Requirements

  • Cardiorespiratory 3
  • Flexibility 1
  • Muscular Strength 1
  • Muscular Endurance 3
  • Coordination/Skill 1

Muscle groups used

Primary muscles: quadriceps, hamstrings and calves Assistance muscles: hip flexors, lower back (erector spinae), abdominals, obliques, shoulders, biceps, triceps and upper back (the latter muscle groups are used as stabilizers while running)

Energy expenditure

Approximately 0.1 Calories per minute per pound of body weight

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